Create your own Echo: How to Generate, Calculate and Manipulate Echoes

June 5-7, 2019

 

Tübingen/DE

 

Course organiser

Klaus Scheffler
Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Tübingen/DE
Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonsance
University of Tübingen

Local organisers

Klaus Scheffler, Tina Schröder
Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Tübingen/DE
Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonsance
University of Tübingen

Course Venue

Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Tübingen/DE

 

Hotel Information

tba

Registration Fees

Early Registration Fee
(until 8 weeks prior to the course)

Regular fee

ESMRMB Members* € 420
ESR Members* € 530
Non-Members € 600

Reduced fee**
Juniors, Radiographers, Seniors

ESMRMB Members* € 300
ESR Members* € 325
Non-Members € 350

Late Registration Fee
(after 8 weeks prior to the course)

Regular fee

ESMRMB Members* € 560
ESR Members* € 670
Non-Members € 740

Reduced fee**
Juniors, Radiographers, Seniors

ESMRMB Members* € 400
ESR Members* € 425
Non-Members € 450

 

Faculty

tba

Programme

The programme of the course will be announced soon!

Goals of the course

The course on Create your Own Echo: How to Generate, Calculate and Manipulate Echoes offers a physically and mathematically oriented description of basic and non-basic physical properties of spins exposed to penetrating radio frequency and gradient fields. Is it possible to generate a spin echo with two 10-degree RF pulses? What is the difference between a spoiled gradient echo sequence and a balanced steady state free precession technique? How can we calculate amplitude and phase of spin echoes, stimulated echoes and steady state signals?

Attendance of the course will provide you with a fundamental knowledge of

  • Handling and calculations with the Bloch equations
  • Understanding of sampling trajectories in k-space
  • Fourier description of magnetisation, the phase-graph
  • Counting of echo paths in a multi-pulse experiment
  • Behaviour of multiple spin echo techniques at low flip angles
  • Mathematical description of steady states and their resulting contrasts
  • Application of Hyper Echoes to gradient echo methods
  • Exotic sequences, Hyper Echoes, TRAPS
Educational levels

This course is suited for established MR physicists, engineers, and other scientists with several years of direct experience in performing MRI applications and/or MRI technological research and development. The advanced course intends to provide a deeper understanding and mathematical description of state-of-the-art, rapid imaging principles.

Course description

The design and understanding of rapid imaging sequences seems to be a carefully sealed and treasured secret. A train of RF pulses and gradient pulses produce an unmanageable amount of echoes, and these echoes have to be combined and selected very meticulously to produce a useful signal for rapid imaging. How big should we choose the spoiler gradient within a gradient echo sequence, and what do we spoil? Can we use a Hyper Echo to reverse a gradient echo sequence? What is the steady state and its resulting contrast?

After very successful courses held in Basel, London, Essen, Magdeburg and Tübingen, this course will be repeated in Tübingen in 2016. The lectures are designed to provide a general and formal framework for the description and understanding of rapid multi-pulse experiments based on the Bloch equations and its Fourier analogy, the extended phase graph in k-space. This advanced course is aimed at established MR physicists, engineers, and other communities with several years of direct and practical experience in MRI applications and/or MRI technological research and development, who seek a deeper understanding of rapid imaging principles.

Learning objectives

Description of magnetisation in spatial and Fourier domain

  • Bloch equations, applied to simple gradient and spin echo techniques
  • Description of magnetisation as Fourier series, interpretation of Fourier coefficients as population of states
  • Theory of partitions/states
  • Description of spin echo, stimulated echo, higher order echoes with extended phase graph
  • Calculation of echo amplitudes

Signal formation in rapid gradient echo sequences

  • The stopped pulse experiment
  • Conditions and properties of the steady state
  • Description of the steady state in spatial and
  • Fourier domain
  • Types of steady state sequences
  • Double echo techniques
  • Echo shifted techniques
  • Contrast of rapid gradient echo techniques
  • RF spoiling

Signal formation in rapid spin echo sequences

  • CPMG and non-CPMG condition
  • CPMG with reduced refocusing flip angles
  • Pseudo steady state
  • Preparation of defined echo amplitudes
  • Static pseudo steady state
  • Hyper Echo
  • Implementation of rapid CPMG sequences

Special rapid imaging techniques

  • Gradient and spin echoes: GRASE
  • Missing pulse techniques
  • Motion, diffusion, and flow sensitivity of spin- and gradient echoes
  • Single shot techniques
  • Major clinical applications of rapid imaging techniques
  • A summary of possible contrasts